1. General Information
Today, endoscopic surgical procedures, or more popularly known as the keyhole (closed) surgical techniques are used in managing more and more disease in differnet medical specialities and by many centers. In order to perform these procedures, the surgeon need specially developed optical systems, imaging devices and surgical tools. These instruments, ranging from 2-3mm diameter 10-12mm with a few holes (incisions) are placed into related body cavities through the surgical procedures.
The data obtained from centers with adequate equipment and specialized team support that this method contributes an accelerated healing process, reduces length of hospital stay, and has better cosmetic result. In recent years, single port surgery which includes placing a single device (port) having capability of multipl instrument carriage into body cavities, or a limited number of robotic surgery are applied in certain pediatric cases. Two endoscopic surgical techniques which are important for our field of expertise are outlined below.
2. Endoscopic Surgery for Chest (Thoracoscopic Surgery)
Thoracoscopic surgery particularly concerning the endoscopic surgery, are used in the diagnosis of some diseases related to both chest cavity and organs/ tissues located within the chest such as lungs, thymus, lymph nodes as well as in their management. Some of these are listed below.
- Infection of chest cavity (empyema)
- Chest wall disorders / Cobblers breast (pectus excavatum)
- Lung cysts and tumors
- Diseases of hymus gland
- Diseases of the esophagus
- Diaphragmatic hernia/evantration
3. Endoscopic Surgery for Abdomen (Laparoscopic Surgery)
Laparoscopic surgery particularly concerning the endoscopic surgery, are used in both diagnosis and management of some diseases related to belly (abdominal cavity) and organs/ tissues located within the abdomen such as stomach, intestines, appendix, spleen, liver, kidneys, etc. Some of these are listed below.
- Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (surgical repair / fundoplication)
- Appendicitis (appendix removal)
- Anal atresia
- Liver and gall bladder diseases (biopsy, removal of the gallbladder)
- Diseases of spleen (removal of the spleen)
- Kidney diseases (biopsy, removal of the kidney)
- Urinary tract obstructions (stenosis repair)
- Ovarian diseases – Girls (biopsy, cyst / tumor removal)
- Testicular Diseases – Boys (investigation of abdominal testis, orchidopexy)